The state was created on Tuesday August 27, 1991, when the Federal Military Government under the General Ibrahim Babangida announced the creation of nine additional states in the country bringing the total number of states then to thirty. The announcement was given a legal backing through the; State Creation and Transitional Provisions Decree No. 37 of 1991.
Excised from Kano State it covers a total land area of about 22,410sq Km. It is bordered on the West by Kano State, on the East by Bauchi and Yobe States and on the North by Katsina and Yobe States and the Republic of Niger.
The state is mainly populated by the Hausa, Fulani and the Mangawa, Badawa and Ngizimawa which are dialects of the kanuri language. They constitute significant percentages in Birniwa, Guri and Kiri kasamma local government areas. There are other settled tribes both from within and outside Nigeria inhibiting in almost all the local Government areas of the state with the highest concentration in the state capital.
With a centrally controlled Government from the state capital Dutse, the state has twenty seven (27) local government council’s three senatorial Districts, eleven Federal constituencies and thirty (30) state assembly constituencies as enshrined in the 1999 constitution of the federal Republic of Nigeria.
As presently constituted by the 1999 constitution, the Executive arm is headed by the state Governor, Alhaji Muhammad Badaru Abubakar as the chief Executive elected under the All Progressive Congress (APC) and is principally in charge of day to day running of its affairs with his deputy Alhaji Umar Namadi and members of the state Executive council assisting. The Legislature which is responsible for law making is headed by the Speaker Honorable Idris Garba (Kareka) with other House leaders supporting him while the Judiciary charged with interpreting laws has the chief Judge, Justice Aminu Sabo as the State Chief Judge and is equally the chairman of the state judicial service commission.
As it is the Executive arm which is in charge of the day to running of state affairs is organized into ministries, Agencies and Parastatals. All the ministries have active programs that focus on education, economic and Agricultural development, land management, environmental protection and human related activities. Policy decisions are taken by the Executive council and the responsibility of implementing such lies with commissioners through their respective ministries and Agenci
The state is divided into five emirates each administered by a traditional ruler called Emir (sarki) with District Heads, Village Heads and Ward Heads assisting them. The Emirs and District Heads, unlike other public functionaries, do not exercise political power but serve as custodians of culture and advisers to the Government on traditional and religious affairs. All the Emirs are first class title holders.
The topography of the state is generally flat with the northern, central, and eastern parts covered with undulating sand dunes running in the Southwest to Northeast direction. The area around the state capital Dutse is very rocky with some low hills. The southern and western parts of the state around Birnin Kudu and Kazaure have the highest elevations with hills as high as 600 millimeters above sea level. The state is bisected by the Hadejia River and traverses the state from the west to the east through Hadejia-Nguru wetlands and empties into Lake Chad.
The state lies between latitudes 11oN and 13oN and longitudes 8oE and 10o35\\\'E with a tropical climate while the temperature varies at different times. High temperatures are normally recorded between the months of April and September. The daily minimum and maximum temperatures are 15 degree and 35 degree Celsius. The rainy season lasts from May to September with average rainfall of between 600 millimeters to 1000 millimeters. The southern part of the state has a higher rainfall percentage than the northern part.
The state is situated within the Sudan savannah vegetation zone, but there are traces of Guinea savannah in the southern part of the state. Its total forest covers about 5% due to rainfall characteristics and deforestation due primarily to use of wood for cooking. The name Jigawa is a Hausa word used to describe a vast loamy but non-marshy soil.
Local Governments Within the State
By the 1999 constitution the state has twenty seven Local Government area councils headed by elected chairmen and assisted by councilors elected on the platform of a political party. The implementation of programmes of each local government is the joint responsibility of councilors with various portfolios who constitute the council with the Executive chairman as supervisor and a vice assisting.
LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AREAS AND HEADQUARTERS
|SERIAL NUMBER||LOCAL GOVERNMENT NAME||HEADQUARTERS||-|
|5||BIRNIN KUDU||-||BIRNIN KUDU||-|
|15||KIRI KASAMMA||-||KIRI KASAMMA||-|
|16||KAFIN HAUSA||-||KAFIN HAUSA||-|
|20||MALAM MADIRI||-||MALAM MADIRI||-|